PURSUING THE LIMITS OF FAILED SYMMETRY

Uncle Al, 09 July 2011


Abstract: The universe violates mirror-symmetry at all scales. Gravitation is postulated to be mirror-symmetric. Test gravitation with a metaphoric pair of shoes: non-superposable mirror-image atomic mass distributions, five classes of experiments herein. Physics could selectively fall to a footnote.

CONTENTS


I     Failure of Theory
II    Different in a different way
    Image      chirality and parity
III   Shopping for shoes
    Equation   fitted log(1 - CHI) vs. log(radius)
    Stereogram alpha-Quartz P3221 stereogram
    Graph      alpha-Quartz log(1 - CHI) vs. log(radius)
    Stereogram Benzil P3221 stereogram
    Graph      Benzil log(1 - CHI) vs. log(radius)
    Stereogram gamma-Glycine P32 stereogram
    Graph      gamma-Glycine log(1 - CHI) vs. log(radius)
IV    Fitting shoes on feet
    Image      Optical chirality versus structure
    Image      Optical chirality, superposed stereograms
V     Parity Eötvös experiment
    Image      Inertial vs. gravitational acceleration
    Equations  Active mass in composition Eötvös experiments
    Table      Test mass property magnitudes
VI    Parity calorimetry experiment
    Image      Benzil enantiomorphic enthalpies of fusion
    List       Parity calorimetry experiment outcomes
VII   Parity Gyroballs
VIII  Parity Molecular Rotors
    Image      Twistane and twistylidene dimers
    Table      Molecular rotor properties in vacuum
IX    Parity Galilean Drops
X     Conclusion
XI    Commentary and Polemic
    YouTube    Music video
    Image      Somebody should look
References     References

I. Failure of theory

(arxiv:ZZ references below are http://arxiv.org/abs/ZZ)

General Relativity and quantum field theory are correct to the limits of observation, about 14 significant figures. They are incompatible where they overlap. Something postulated to be true is selectively false - and detectably so, but only outside theory. The greatest obstacle to understanding reality is not ignorance but the illusion of knowledge. Reality is not a peer vote. Empirical observation in existing apparatus using commercial materials can identify the failure.

Chiral algebras yield conformal field theory. How does non-linear dynamical symmetry chirality have linear algebraic consequences? Conformal field theory is typically explored in 2-D. In higher dimensions (e.g., Calabi-Yau, AdS/CFT correspondence, supersymmetric gauge theories, Sasaki-Einstein) it yields string theories having no empirical tests. Founding postulates can be empirically tested. They have no defense against falsification.

Every atom coordinate (+/-)M in a massed body is replaced with (-/+)M giving *M simultaneously reflected in all directions (geometric parity inversion). Translate centers of mass to coincide. Physics assumes rotations pinned to that point exactly transform *M back into M. If M is chiral, all series of rotations plus translations will fail. (Reflections, Sn improper axes of symmetry, are obviously forbidden). The math is unflawed, but it is incomplete.

If the vacuum is demonstrably not symmetric toward otherwise identical opposite geometric parity atomic mass distributions, physical theory is fundamentally wrong. Contradiction of prior observations is avoided. Divergence is only detectable for fermions in the chiral case, which as an atomic lattice is chemistry.

Physical theory postulates mirror symmetries: Newton (Green's function), General Relativity (Equivalence Principle), string theory (BRST invariance) and quantum gravitations overall, Calabi-Yau manifolds [1], standard model (arrives massless; Higgs is not detected), SUSY (invisible to LHC and XENON-100). The massed universe is not mirror-symmetric: electroweak force to fermions' anti-symmetric wavefunctions. Einstein-Hilbert action requires adding a parity-violating Chern-Simons term [2]. Defective postulates require inserted "symmetry breakings" during theory derivation.

Vacuum asymmetry toward otherwise identical opposite chirality atomic mass distributions has never been examined. Test mass is metaphoric left versus right shoes built of fermions, not massless boson photons pursuing null geodesic paths. Physics cannot calculate geometric parity divergence (chiral divergence in all directions) of a chiral atomic mass distribution and its mirror image. Crystallography and pure mathematics provide extreme inverse geometric parity self-similar atomic mass distributions to arbitrarily large sizes.

Socks and left shoes do not detect a left foot. Right shoes detect a left foot. A massed sector chiral vacuum background can be detected without contradiction of prior observations.

Big Bang intense chirality implies remnant chiral vacuum background active only toward fermionic mass [3]. A massed sector chiral vacuum background contradicts no prior data. Diastereotopic mass-vacuum interactions can exist. Noether's theorems couple continuous symmetries with conserved currents. Vacuum isotropy demands angular momentum conservation. Noether requires continuous symmetries or Taylor series' approximations.

Geometric parity is an explicit discontinuous symmetry. A massed sector chiral vacuum background allows minimum non-zero value for fermion angular momentum at large scale and small angular acceleration. Observed galaxy rotation versus increasing radius is remarkably modeled by MOND. The Tully-Fisher law relates spiral galaxies' visible mass distribution to asymptotically constant star and gas rotation velocities at large radii - the "dominating dark matter halos" regime. Milgrom acceleration critical value is g0 ~(1.21±0.14)·10-10 m/s2. The universal MOND residual for fermionic matter can thus be sourced [4] as massed angular momentum with a minimum non-zero value from explicit symmetry breaking.

Chiral mass is divergent for matter vs. antimatter abundance, beta-decay rates [5], and neutrino-antineutrino reaction channels [6]. Massless photons are inert [7]. Opposite shoes detect a vacuum left foot by violating the Equivalence Principle (EP). Chemically and macroscopically identical, inverse geometric parity atomic mass distributions vacuum free fall non-identically: parallel minimum action trajectories, but with one test mass lagging the other in speed. Opposite circular polarizations of light traversing a materially homogeneous electronically chiral medium have different refractive indices (ORD) and different molar absorptivities (CD).

Decay of an intensely chiral Big Bang false vacuum, differentially acting upon fermionic matter only, fueled cosmic inflation, selected matter over antimatter, froze the Weak interaction left-handed. Its trace remnant today, active only in the fermionic massed sector, biased biological homochirality, causes annual sinusoidal rates of chiral beta-decay, splits the degeneracy of chiral neutrino-antineutrino reaction channels, and remains detectable by inverse geometric parity atomic mass distributions. Cosmic microwave background photons' polarization decoupled from massed sector chirality long before the universe went transparent.

No EP violation has emerged since 1500s' Galileo Galilei and Simon Stevin. Anomalies will appear external to derivation. Geometric parity, outside physical theory founding postulates and obtainable by chemistry, is the obvious testable EP falsification. Test for it: Opposite shoes vacuum free fall non-identically.

II. Different in a different way

Geometric parity is nonsuperposability of a set of points upon its mirror image along all coordinate axes.

Chirality/Parity

Quantum field theories (QFT) with Hermitian Hamiltonians are invariant under the Poincaré group containing spatial reflections. Parity is a spatial reflection but is not a QFT symmetry. Covariance with respect to reflection in space and time is not required by the Poincaré group of Special Relativity or the Einstein group of General Relativity (GR). Noether's theorems require continuous symmetries or approximation by a Taylor series. Parity is irresolvably discontinuous and excluded. Physics is proudly blind to opposite shoes.

Parity effects appear in weak interactions. Gravitation is the weakest fundamental interaction by 24 orders of magnitude. Opposite shoes will vacuum free fall along identical trajectories at detectably different rates - a vacuum "chiral mass refractive index" not exceeding 10-12 difference/average. One enantiomorph will vacuum free fall (nearly) unremarkably, as a pair of socks or a left shoe fit upon a left foot. The other enantiomorph will display the majority of the parity EP anomaly, as a right shoe poorly fits upon a left foot.

Metric and quantum gravitation theories unite the effects of a massive body and an accelerated inertial frame by postulating the EP (general relativity) or rationalizing it (string theory and BRST invariance).

  1. All local centers of mass vacuum free fall along identical (parallel-displaced) minimum action trajectories at identical rates independent of all measurable observables.

  2. The vacuum world line of a body immersed in a gravitational field is independent of all measurable observables.

  3. The local effects of motion in a curved space (gravitation) are indistinguishable from those of an accelerated observer in flat space, without exception.

  4. Mass (measured with a balance) and weight (measured with a scale) are locally in identical ratio for all bodies (the opening page to Newton's Principia).

Eötvös experiments detect no composition or field EP violations to 5·10-14 difference/average [8]. Lunar laser ranging observes zero Nordtvedt effect. 1.74 solar-mass 465.1 Hz pulsar PSR J1903+0327 plus a 1.05 solar-mass star are a 95.17-day orbit binary system [9]. 15.3% (AP4 model radius) [10] vs. 0.0001% gravitational binding energy, 1.8·1011 vs. 30 surface gees, 2·108 gauss vs. 5 gauss magnetic field; compressed superfluid neutrons and superconductive protons [11] vs. proton-electron plasma, extreme isospin and lepton number divergence; and pulsar 11% (AP4) of lightspeed equatorial spin velocity are differentially EP-inert for orbit, periastron precession, and gravitation radiation orbital decay. 1.97 solar-mass 317.5 Hz PSR J1614-2230 and a 0.5 solar-mass He-C-O white dwarf contrast pulsars with Fermi-degenerate matter, 20% versus 0.01% gravitational binding energy [12], to no EP anomaly.

Divergent strong field relativistic and quantum measurable observables universally validate the EP. All atoms are anonymous unit masses in vacuum free fall. Chemical bonding is gravitationally invisible: covalent, ionic, metallic, hydrogen, aromatic, aromatic stacking, banana, pi-pi sigma, dative, halogen; carbanions, carbocations, radicals, carbenes; 3-center 2-electron, charge transfer, metal to ligand charge transfer, intervalence charge transfer, van der Waals.... All measurable observables are differentially inert in Einstein's elevator at laboratory, local, and cosmic scales. Mass distribution chirality can be observed and calculated, but it cannot be measured. The EP can be falsified without contradiction of prior observations in any venue at any scale.

III. Shopping for shoes

Crystallographic space groups (pdf) are a group of automorphisms with a bounded fundamental region consistent with crystal lattice discrete translation symmetries. Two objects equivalent by affine transformation but not conjugate by an orientation-preserving transformation (no orientation-preserving map from the group to its mirror image exists) are an enantiomorphic pair [18]. 3-space periodic crystal lattices are 230 unique self-similar distributions of points. 65 Sohnke space groups permit chiral contents. 11 enantiomorphic pairs in the 65 are mathematically chiral independent of unit cell contents (pdf). Delete individual space groups containing racemic or opposite sense screw axes. Two usable enantiomorphic pairs remain, with right-handed 31 screw axes or left-handed 32 screw axes: P3121(#152) | P3221(#154), alpha-quartz. P31(#144) | P32(#145), gamma-glycine. These are our shoe boxes containing opposite shoes.

Mathematician Michel Petitjean's published (pdf) QCM software [19] ab initio, from relative atomic coordinates only, calculates CHI - the normalized global minimum for all translations and rotations for all correspondences permitted by a graph. QCM requires anonymous countable N points' relative coordinates and body finite inertial moments. The overall extreme is CHI = 1 (normalized geometric parity divergence, [0 - 1]), COR = 1 (identity element only; N! maximum), DSI = 0 (self-similarity; [0 - 1]).

CHI asymptotic to 1 given COR = 1 DSI = 0 is a connection among eigenvalues, special functions, their representation theory with solid angles, and exponentials of fractions of pi at a characteristic scale. Graphic intercept arises from a solid angle subtended by a polyhedron vertex angle alpha (supplement of its dihedral angle) of a formula unit's three consecutive atoms (alpha-quartz' averaged six O-Si-O paths) or dihedral angle (benzil), Eq. 1. Larger angles give smaller intercepts and larger CHI at a given lattice ball radius (scaled as log10, radius in angstroms, and angle in degrees). All proposed enantiomorphic test masses qualify as the most extreme case.

  1. CHI rapidly asymptotes to 1 with increasing lattice radius, within angstroms.
  2. COR = 1 (identity element only), DSI = 0.
  3. 31 (right-handed) and 32 (left-handed) screw axes possess a characteristic angle within the formula unit comprising them, alpha. A graph of log(1 - CHI) versus log(radius) is tightly coupled to that angle,

    log10(1-CHI)= -2[log10(radius)] + pi[2 - (alpha/60)]

Space groups P3121 and P3221: The quartz group includes alpha-quartz, [20], berlinite and analogues, cinnabar, tellurium, metallic selenium, others. Opposed solid single crystals of right- and left-handed quartz enable a parity-conserving Eötvös experiment sensitive to EP parity violation. A semi-empirical approach to calculating geometric parity divergence strictly agrees [23]. Quartz' atoms are densely packed, 79.64 atoms/nm3.

Quartz helix

CHI vs. radius, Quartz

Benzil, C6H5-(C=O)-(C=O)-C6H5, is achiral when molten, gas phase, or dissolved. Solid state crystal lattice forces twist and stack benzil molecules into homochiral helices, space groups P3121 or P3221 [Acta Cryst. B43 398 (1987)].

A parity-destroying (by melting the crystal lattice) calorimetry experiment measures divergent vacuum insertion energies plus EP parity violation as single crystals' divergent enthalpies of fusion, shoes fitted into the vacuum left foot then melted into identical fitted socks without any chemical alteration. Benzil's atoms are densely packed, 93.43 atoms/nm3.

Benzil structures

CHI vs. radius, Benzil

Space groups P31 and P32: Glycine gamma-polymorph [21] mesitylglyoxylic acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-dicarbonitrile. gamma-Glycine's atoms are very densely packed, 127.07 atoms/nm3. It has 62.7% a-quartz' lattice volume/atom and 59.8% its material density, providing 2.67 times more structure/mass.

Glycine helix

CHI vs. radius, Glycine

IV. Fitting shoes on feet

A chiral vacuum background appears in two independent ways. Right and left shoes fall through it differently. Right and left shoes insert into it with different energies. The former is a parity Eötvös experiment requiring exotic apparatus, 90 days, and PhD staff. Both together are a parity calorimetry experiment requiring two differential scanning calorimeters (DSCs), 2 days, and technicians.

EP violation as divergent rather than parallel trajectories disturbingly defines a privileged direction in space. EP violation as divergent acceleration magnitudes is unremarkable.

EP parity divergence is geometric, not compositional or electronic. Optical chirality is progressive rotation of the plane of linearly polarized light with passage through a medium. It is the imaginary part of the complex gyrotropy tensor. The quantitative electronic chirality scalar is time-reversal even, mirror-reflection odd:

Optical chirality is an artifact of orbitals, spin polarization, and interrogation frequency (J. Appl. Cryst. 19 108 (1986)). Chiroptical methods (specific rotation, optical rotatory dispersion; circular dichroism) are electromagnetic probes of three irreducible tensor components: pseudoscalar (chirality persists in disordered solution); vector (pyroelectric lattice); pseudodeviator (lattice symmetry). The last two allow mirror planes (gyrotropy without chirality) [13]. Silver thiogallate, AgGaS2 in achiral space group I-42d(#122), has 522°/millimeter optical rotation along [100] at 497.4 nm [14]. alpha-Quartz has no measurable optical chirality 56.16° from crystallographic [0001] (Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 20 703 (1934)). Optical chirality cannot assemble a parity Eötvös experiment.

The Flack parameter is global detection of the chiral direction and relative enantiomeric excess of a non-centrosymmetric periodic crystal lattice. The Flack parameter is best resolved in a lattice containing both heavy and light atoms. It is not an absolute measure of atomic mass distribution chiral divergence, one crystal lattice composition compared to another composition.

Friedel's law says the scattering intensity |F(hkl)|2 from crystal plane (hkl) equals |F(-h -k -l)|2 where "F" is the calculated structure factor. However, atoms' inner electrons resonantly absorb x-rays and re-emit them with a delay. Reflections then have a phase shift called anomalous dispersion. Atomic scattering factors have imaginary parts due to anomalous dispersion, breaking Friedel's law.

The Flack parameter "x" is I(hkl) = (1-x)|F(hkl)|2 + x|F(-h -k -l)|2

"I" is the square of the scaled observed structure factor. If x ~ 0, the absolute chirality of the structure refinement is likely correct. If x ~ 1, the inverted structure is likely correct. If x ~ 0.5, the crystal may be racemic or twinned.

2-Norbornanone has [alpha]D = 29.8° cm3/g-dm. 2-Norbornenone has [alpha]D = 1146.° cm3/g-dm. The molecules are superposable except for olefinic hydrogens. Optical chirality does not measure geometric chirality within similar structures [15].

norbornyls

Chiroptical methods do not measure mass distribution chirality [16]. Even qualified local chiral atomic mass distributions may not sum to global chirality. Opposite chirality species cancel in a racemate. A solid ball is gaplessly dissected into N = 2 (or more) congruent homochiral pieces by the Coupe du Roi [17]. Global geometric criteria are required.

V. Parity Eötvös experiment

An Eötvös torsion pendulum is a symmetric ~6 cm diameter rotor vertically suspended from a meter of ~20 micrometer diameter tungsten filament (a hair is ~50 micrometers diameter) in a vibration-isolated; electrically, magnetically, and electromagnetically-shielded ultra-high vacuum chamber. It carries two mass-balanced and moments of inertia-balanced sets of 180°-opposed test masses totaling ~40 grams. The rotor link above [26] displays two parity Eötvös experiments:

  1. Right- versus left-handed alpha-quartz. Hemiparity Eötvös experiments oppose each parity with amorphous fused silica test masses.
  2. Right- versus left-handed gamma-glycine. Hemiparity Eötvös experiments oppose each parity with single crystal alpha-glycine test masses in centrosymmetric space group P21/n [24].

EP violation exerts nanoscopic periodic torque with interferometric rotation detection as the Earth gravitationally orbits the sun (mg, gravitational test mass) and inertially rotates about its axis (mi, inertial test mass). EP composition tests null to
2|mg - mi|/|mg + mi| = 5·10-14 difference/average sensitivity.

ORBIT

Geocenter orbital acceleration varies from 0.6133 cm/sec2 ~03 January 2010 perihelion to 0.5737 cm/sec2 ~06 July 2010 aphelion averaging 0.5930 cm/sec2 at one astronomical unit. Given World Geodetic System 1984, 44.95° latitude affords maximum 1.693 cm/sec2 horizontal component of Earth's inertial spin at sea level. Geoid gravity is 980.6 cm/sec2 (differentially inactive in these experiments). Small imposed accelerations demand large contrasted property concentration and divergence for detectable EP violation.

An Eötvös experiment contrasts net active mass. Nuclear binding energy is the largest studied composition divergence, but it is a very small fraction of total mass loaded in a composition dipole. Weighted for isotopic abundance and respective nuclear binding energies, formula unit versus formula unit,

p  =  938.272029 MeV
n  =  939.565360 MeV                           neutrons protons
BeH2 =   2.154282813 MeV/baryon binding energy   5         6
Be =     6.462844444 MeV/baryon binding energy   5         4
Ti =     8.713956520 MeV/baryon binding energy  25.9183   22
Al =     8.331644111 MeV/baryon binding energy  14        13
Mg =     8.265128777 MeV/baryon binding energy  12.3202   12
Pt =     7.929068987 MeV/baryon binding energy 117.11348  78
Rh =     8.584197699 MeV/baryon binding energy  58        45
V  =     8.741956554 MeV/baryon binding energy  27.9975   23
TA6V =   8.692137777 MeV/baryon binding energy  25.28637  21.5
PtRh10 = 7.994581858 MeV/baryon binding energy 111.20213  74.7

    [Ti - BeH2]/[( 30.9183n   +  28p )/ 58.9183]   = 0.0069862  active mass fraction
      [Ti - Be]/[( 30.9183n   +  26p )/ 56.9183]   = 0.0023974  active mass fraction
      [Al - Be]/[( 19n        +  17p )/ 36]        = 0.0019903  active mass fraction
      [Mg - Be]/[( 17.3202n   +  16p )/ 33.3202]   = 0.0019195  active mass fraction
      [Ti - Pt]/[(143.03178n  + 100p )/243.03178]  = 0.00083585 active mass fraction
[TA6V - PtRh10]/[(136.428502n + 96.2p)/232.628502] = 0.00074285 active mass fraction

p, n mass equiv., isotope ratios:  CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 
                                   88th Ed., 2007-8, Secs. 1-4, 11-57
Nuclear binding energies:  http://t2.lanl.gov/data/astro/molnix96/massd.html

[Ti - Pt] is MICROSCOPE. It is a hopeless EP test made worse for the alloys to be used: PtRh10 (90% Pt, 10% Rh) versus titanium alloy TA6V (90Ti_6Al_4V).

Atomic mass distribution in 3-space defines a geometric parity test mass. Ignoring electrons entirely, quartz is 0.99973 active mass (nuclei relative positions in space). Parity Eötvös experiments are 400 to 500 times as sensitive as the best composition Eötvös experiments for the same test mass total loading for the same EP divergence.

Benzil differential enthalpy of fusion calorimetry (below) allows a maximum geometric parity divergence Eötvös signal of 10-12 difference/average. Geometric parity Eötvös experiments offer thousands of times better overall sensitivity than the most divergent composition Eötvös experiments, even in principle,

 [Ti - BeH2]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.0069862 )(5·10-14)] =  2,862
   [Ti - Be]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.0023974 )(5·10-14)] =  8,340
   [Al - Be]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.0019903 )(5·10-14)] = 10,046
   [Mg - Be]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.0019195 )(5·10-14)] = 10,416
   [Ti - Pt]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.00083585)(5·10-14)] = 23,921
[MICROSCOPE]: [(0.9997)(10-12)]/[(0.00074285)(5·10-14)] = 26,915

Other composition Eötvös experiments have smaller active mass content and vanishingly small net active mass divergence,

TEST MASS PROPERTY MAGNITUDES

PropertyFraction of
Rest Mass
rest mass 100%
crystal lattice
nuclear mass distribution
parity divergence
  99.9775%  (*Te)
  99.9771%  (*HgS)
  99.9769%  (*PdSbTe)
  99.9730%  (*AlPO4)
  99.9726%  (*SiO2)
  99.9713%  (*benzil)
  99.9708%  (*glycine)
nuclear binding energy (low Z)     0.76%    (2He4)
neutron versus proton mass     0.14%
electrostatic nuclear repulsion     0.06%
electron mass     0.03%
unpaired spin mass     0.005%  (55Mn**)
nuclear antiparticle exchange     0.00001%
Weak Force interactions     0.0000001%
Gravitational binding energy     0.0000000319% Earth***
    0.00000000185% moon

    *(nuclear mass)/(atomic mass), corrected for isotopic abundance
  **globally aligned undecatiplet
***Iron core, graded density with depth rather than homogeneous body
       http://typnet.net/Essays/EarthBind.htm

If inverse geometric parity quartz single crystals fall through the vacuum differently, a time-varying Eötvös torsion balance net output will obtain as with a (never observed) successful composition experiment. Controls are each alpha-quartz geometric parity run against achiral amorphous fused silica test masses, or each gamma-glycine geometric parity run against achiral single crystal test masses of alpha-glycine in centrosymmetric space group P21/n.

Space groups P3121 (alpha-quartz) or P31 (gamma-glycine), geometric right shoes, will display most of the EP parity violation. Space groups P3221 and P32, geometric left shoes, will fall (approximately) unremarkably.

VI. Parity calorimetry experiment

A parity Eötvös experiment is geometric parity-conserving. A parity calorimetry experiment is geometric parity-destroying. It melts opposite shoes into identical achiral socks. A time-varying EP parity violation is summed with a constant differential chiral vacuum background insertion,

Benzil fusion

All Eötvös experiments detect (m = mass; g = gravitational, i = inertial, 2|mg - mi|/|mg + mi| divergence. Parity calorimetry experiments detect |mg - mi|c2 plus chiral vacuum insertion difference. Benzil's deltaHfusion(enthalpy of fusion) is 112 J/g. A 5·10-14 relative Eötvös signal is

E = (5·10-17 kg)(299,792,458 m/sec)2
E = 4.49 joules
4% relative deltadeltaHfusion

DSC precision is 0.1%. A borderline detectable parity Eötvös experiment output is 40 times DSC baseline sensitivity. A parity EP experiment has 400 to 500 times the relative active mass of the best composition Eötvös experiment. State of the art composition Eötvös experiment sensitivity is 5·10-14 relative. Unremarkable parity calorimetry experiment sensitivity is 16,000 to 20,000 times better, 3·10-18 relative.

Two horizontally abutted DSCs' sample ports define a north-south line. Each holds a ~3 mm diameter ~17 mg benzil single crystal sphere with sample carriers crimped against sublimation. One sample port consistently contains one crystal in space group P3121 and the other sample port one crystal in P3221. deltaHfusion are simultaneously run. New crystals run at half-hour intervals for 24 hours inclusive local time. If deltadeltaHfusion is not equal to zero within experimental error, repeat the run the next day with east-west alignment. deltadeltaHfusion will have a six hour phase shift on the second day when the sample ports are aligned east-west. Calibration and controls are deltaHfusion of finely powdered racemic benzil.

A parity calorimetry experiment in benzil has four possible outcomes:

  1. No net signal. deltadeltaHfusion = 0. Enantiomorphic single crystal deltaHfusion are identical to that of powdered racemic benzil. Values do not change versus time of day and N-S or E-W geographic orientation.
  2. P3121 and P3221 crystals consistently fit with different energies into chiral vacuum. The melts are achiral and identical. Opposite parities of chemically identical crystal melting to a common state must display different enthalpies of fusion. At least one deltaHfusion will be different from that of powdered racemic benzil, deltadeltaHfusion is not equal to 0.
  3. The angle between Earth's inertial spin and gravitational orbit rotates 360°/24 hours. This sources a composition Eötvös experiment signal. Add P3121 and P3221 benzil test masses aligned N-S and the coordinate frame cycles chiral, achiral, opposite chiral, achiral every 24 hours. A sinusoidal deltadeltaHfusion not equal to 0 will appear.
  4. (2)+(3). Physics contains no alternative explanation for this observation.

BUT WHY STOP HERE! Heresy has no reason to be subtle.

VII. Parity Gyroballs

Earth's inertial spin and gravitational orbit offer rich interaction at 44.950 latitude (WGS84; Earth is a slightly oblate spheroid). "Vacuum propellers" are notoriously nonphysical - but not for us. A rigid chiral mass distribution translating through an interactive medium experiences torque. Inverse geometric parities experience opposite torques.

Otherwise identical single crystal quartz balls, space groups P3121 / P3221, and an amorphous fused silica ball are coated with superconductor and Meissner effect-levitated in hard vacuum re levitated superconducting dual sphere gravimeters. Balls counter-rotating with diurnal phasing (fused silica as control) validate massed sector interactive vacuum background inert to photons.

All aether and Lorentz invariance tests used photons. A divergent mass effect is not prohibited.

VIII. Parity Molecular Rotors

The parity gyroball experiment reduces to vacuum phase single molecules observed with (Fourier transform) microwave spectrometry for diurnally-varying relative rotation state populations. A preferred molecular rotor has a large fraction of its skeletal atoms being stereocenters rendered equivalent by rotation axes. Point group D2 twistane, tricyclo[4.4.0.03,8]decane, C10H16, has four identical chiral centers that arise from geometry.

Rigidly mount two vacuum propellers at opposite ends of a short stiff axle. Random McMurry coupling of racemic synthetic intermediate twist-2-one creates 25% right-right, 50% right-left, 25% left-left pairings. Rotationally rigid twistylidene dimer rotors are accessible and elegant.

Twistylidene dimers

The table lists calculated properties for candidate molecular rotors in vacuum. CHI validates the C20H28 dimers and their epoxides (permanent dipole moment for stronger microwave transitions). CHI and moments of inertia were calculated from HyperChem mm+ minimized structures.

MoleculeCHIMoments of inertia, amu-Å
phenylalanine 0.103146   198.137 1153.73 1182.48
twistane 0.709172   228.401   349.101   352.793
hexadecafluorotwistane 0.714376 1640.94 2150.10 2208.38
chiral di-2-twistylidene 0.462493   703.060 1774.35 1938.04
meso-di-2-twistylidene 0.000000   702.402 1760.13 1996.00
chiral di-2-twistylidene
epoxide
0.455900   733.022 1874.77 2058.85
meso-di-2-twistylidene
epoxide
0.000092   738.745 1877.88 2130.11

FT microwave spectroscopy seeks a diurnal divergence of rotational state populations for paired homochiral rotors versus the meso-pair. A chiral vacuum background will diverge the two homochiral rotors' responses. Diurnal divergence validates a massed sector interactive vacuum background inert to photons.

A 5·10-14 gram/gram divergence is a 4.49 joule/gram divergence. Twistylidene dimer rotors, C20H28, are MW = 268.436. Boltzmann's constant estimates rotational divergence as molecular temperature. If the sample cell is at 100°C, 373.15°K, it is a 28% absolute temperature increase.

(4.49 J/g)(268.436 g/mol)/(6.022·1023 molecules/mole)(1.3806510-23 J/kelvin) = 145 kelvin/molecule

X. Parity Galilean Drops

The historic EP test drops two objects from a tall tower and differentially compares their free fall trajectories. Fallturm Bremen is a 110 meter vacuum free fall, 4.74 seconds one way, or 9 seconds with a bottom catapult launch. The 146 meter tower's core 123 meter vacuum tube is pumped down to 7.5 millitorr. A drop capsule contains an interior drop capsule in hard vacuum.

Robert Reasenberg and James Phillips, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, are fabricating a 400-second vacuum free fall sounding rocket capsule promising 1000X (pdf) greater sensitivity than an Eötvös balance, (arxiv:1001.4752, Class. and Quantum Grav. 27(9) 095005 (2010)). They plan to oppose aluminum versus lead test masses. Grant funding embraces 100% guaranteed failure of a composition EP test but rejects plausible success of a geometric EP test.

A parity Eötvös experiment opposing enantiomorphic space group single crystal alpha-quartz test masses risks success in falsifying the Equivalence Principle. Parity calorimetry in benzil proceeds in kind. Inverse parity gyroballs and parity-paired plus anti-paired molecular propellers are sensitive to all massed sector interactive vacuum backgrounds. A Galilean drop is absolutely definitive. A broad swath of physical theory postulating isotropic vacuum validated by photons could be selectively falsified without contradiction by inverse geometric parity atomic mass distributions. Somebody should look, for the worst it can do is succeed.

XI. Commentary and Polemic

Uncle Al denounces academic physicists who reject challenging spacetime geometry with test mass geometry. They are cowards and worse - managers and bureaucrats covering their bums with abstract performance metrics, measuring what is Officially True not important, procuring performance bonuses for pursuing process not product. Scientists pursue discovery. Discovery is product. On a good day, discovery is ghastly wicked insubordination.

Contemporary physics is an abusive hegemony of beige, as Tommy Aquinas knew the necessary answer but lacked a route to it. Science is poisoned by deformed decisions valuing theory over falsifying experiment. Cognition stratifies.

Young Marlon Brando was grizzly. His studio plugged actors into scripts, making movies and money. Grizzly Brando was a singing gangster in Guys and Dolls. The toughest US criminals were gelded in a Salvation Army meeting. A song said it all,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7kzsZreG0o
in part,

I sailed away on that little boat to Heaven
And by some chance found a bottle in my fist,
And there I stood, nicely passin' out the whiskey,
But the passengers were bound to resist...
For the people all said, "Beware!
You're on a heavenly trip."
People all said, "Beware!
Beware you'll scuttle the ship."
And the Devil will drag you under
By the fancy tie 'round your wicked throat;
Sit down, sit down, sit down, sit down,
Sit down you're rockin' the boat.

A perceptible analogy springs forth...

I loaded quartz in that balanced Eötvös rotor
And by some chance found a signal in its chart,
And there it hung, rotor torquing out the scandal,
But the physicists all were loathe to take part...
For professors all said, "Beware!
You're on a gravity trip."
The profs all said, "Beware!
Keep your hands off scholarship."
And a chemist will drag you under
By the fancy shoes on his wicked feet.
Sit down, sit down, sit down, sit down,
Sit down you're rockin' the boat.

Promotion within hierarchal management is quantitatively worse than random choice. Physics is staring down extraordinary empirical failures: quantum gravitations; Standard Model, SUSY, and the Higgs meson; dark matter. Physics is a coward for not examining a subtle universal falsification of its assumptions to be performed in existing apparatus. Hey physics... you would still have teleparallel gravitation, authored by A. Einstein, et al.

LOOK!

Somebody should look. The worst it can do is succeed.


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